The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus for all age groups worldwide was estimated to be of 2.8% in 2000 and is predicted to affect 4.4% by 20301. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 20301.Diabetes mellitus has been defined as follows:
1.American association of diabetes: Diabetes is a group of metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both.
2.Who definition: Diabetes is a chronic disease, which occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.
3.Harrison's principle of internal medicine: DM refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia.
Aims: The study was aimed at comparing the range and association of musculoskeletal manifestations in patients with diabetes and pre-diabetes in the Kashmiri population.
Methodology: This observational study was performed at SKIMS MCH Bemina at Department of Orthopedics from November 2020 to November 2022. A total of 300 patients were enrolled for the study after obtaining relevant approval from the Ethical Committee of SKIMS MCH Bemina.
Results: As per GALS screening, 61 (40.7%) in Group D compared to 32 (21.3%) in Group PD were having abnormalities in Arms, 50 (33.3%) patients in Group D against 29 (19.3%) patients in Group PD had abnormalities in legs, 20 (13.3%) patients in Group D compared to 7 (4.7%} patients in Group PD with spine abnormalities. The difference observed was statistically significant with p < 0.05. Overall there were 91 (60.7%} patients in Group D with abnormalities compared to 62 (41.3%} patients as per GALS screening with a p value of 0.001.
Conclusion: These manifestations that seem to have a statistically significant difference across the two group are: Dequervains tenosynovitis, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Lateral epicondylitis, Rotator cuff tendintis, Osteoarthritis, Trochanteric bursitis, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), Osteoporosis. These manifestations should be specifically sought in diabetic patients so that a holistic management protocol can be offered to these patients.