Osteomyelitis is an important cause of morbidity in patients with bone infections in developing countries like India. Gram positive bacteria especially Staphylococcus aureus, classically causes this desease, but Gram negative bacteria have grown in importance as causative agents. Widespread use of antibiotics has however altered the aetiological pattern of infections and antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Therefore, the treatment is becoming increasingly troublesome due to rise in drug resistant isolates.
Objective: This study was therefore undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile of osteomyelitis and also to ascertain the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates. Materials and
Methods: In the present study, 100 pus samples from osteomyelitis patients were taken and the specimens were inoculated onto Nutrient, blood and MacConkey agar plates. The plates were incubated at 37 ⁰C for 18 – 24 hours in an incubator. Culture isolates were identified by colony characteristics, Gram’s staining, motility and biochemical reactions. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using CLSI guidelines. MRSA detection was done by cefoxitin disc diffusion method.
Results: The highest incidence of osteomyelitis was observed in the age group of 16-30 years (34%) followed by 31-45 years (31%). Out of 100 cases, 76 (76%) were males and 24 (24%) were females with male to female ratio of 3.16:1. Trauma due to road side accidents (45%) accounted for maximum no. of cases. The commonest organism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus – 32 (35.56%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa -17 (18.89%) as the second most common organism. Out of 32 Staph. aureus isolates, 13 (41.93%) isolates were found to be MRSA and all the MRSA isolates were (100%) resistant to ampicillin, amoxyclav and cefotaxime.
Conclusion : Our study will guide the clinicians in choosing appropriate antibiotics, which not only contribute to better treatment, but the judicious use of such antibiotics will also help in preventing emergence of resistance to the drugs, which are still sensitive.